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10 million


93,036 km˛


107.8 inhabitants per km˛


63.7% urban population, 36.3% rural population


Austria (356 km border), Slovakia (679), Ukraine (137), Romania (453), Fr Yugoslavia (164), Croatia (355), Slovenia (102)

Ethnic profile

Hungarian (96,6%) – 13 officially recognised and registered minorities: German, Gypsies, Croats, Slovaks, Romanians, Bulgarians, Greeks, Polish, Armenian, Ruthens, Serbs, Ukrainian – especially protected by Constitution as a component of the Hungarian state; right of representation in Parliament enshrined in the Constitution and the 1993 Minority Act




Roman Catholic (65%), Reformed (20%), Lutherans (4%), Orthodox (2.7%), Jewish (1%)

Life expectancy

Average: 71.35 years, 67.1 years (male), 75.6 years (female).


In Purchasing Power Standard in 2001: 11,900 Euro
(app. 52% of EU average)
Real GDP growth in 2001: 3.8%

Inflation rate in 2001

5.7 % six months average year-on-year

Unemployment rate

April-June 2002: 5,6% ( ILO definition )


1 Forint or HUF = 100 Fillér
1 Euro = HUF 247 (rate July 2002)

General gov. budget balance

2001 Budget Deficit: 3.3% of GDP

Current account balance

End of 2001: -1.248 million Euro = 2,2% of GDP

Foreign debt

65.3.3% of GDP in 2001

Trade with EU in 2001

Exports to the EU: 75 as % of the total; Imports from the EU: 58 as % of the total

Country information

Location, topography, climate, natural resources

Hungary is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bounded on the north by Slovakia; on the north-east by Ukraine; on the east by Romania; on the south by Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia; and on the west by Austria. Its maximum extent from west to east is 528 kilometres; from north to south this figure is 319 kilometres. Hungary is predominantly flat. The Danube River forms part of Hungary's north-western border with Slovakia, and then flows south through Budapest, dividing Hungary into two general regions. A low, rolling plain known as the Great Hungarian Plain, covers most of the region east of the Danube extending east to Romania and south to Serbia. Highlands along the northern border of the country extend eastward from the gorge of the Danube at Esztergom and include the Matra Mountains, a part of the Carpathian Mountain system. Mount Kékes (1015 m/3330 ft), in the Mátra Mountains, is the highest peak in Hungary. The area west of the Danube, known as Transdanubia, presents a variety of landforms. In the south rise the isolated Mecsek Mountains. In the north are the Bakony Mountains, a forested range in the Transdanubian Highlands, which overlook Lake Balaton, the biggest sweet-water lake in Europe. The Little Alföld (Kisalföld), or Little Plain, in the extreme northwestern section of Hungary, extends into southern Slovakia.

The Danube is Hungary's most important river and transport route, offering easy access to central and south-east Europe. Since the inauguration of the canal linking the Danube to the Main in 1992, goods can be carried from the Black sea to the North Sea. Other major rivers, all tributaries of the Danube, include the Tisza, the longest river in Hungary. In October 2001, the last Danube bridge that was destroyed in World War II was reopened by both the Slovak and the Hungarian Prime Minister and European Commissioner Verheugen. The reconstruction of the bridge was co-financed by the EU Phare programme with € 10 million.

Principal cities

Budapest, the largest city, is the capital and also the cultural, economic and industrial centre of Hungary. Approximately 1.8 million people – 18 percent of the country’s total population – live in Budapest. The capital is located along the two embankments of the Danube. The Buda side of the city reaches up to the hills, while the Pest side was built on the flood plain of the Danube. The 235-meter high Gellért Hill rises on the Buda side of Budapest, nearly in the centre of the town, offering a fine view to the capital. Seven public and two rail bridges span the Danube in its Budapest stretch. Among the many spectacular sights of the capital there is the Royal Castle and the Castle District. The extremely rich collection of the Hungarian National Gallery and the country’s biggest library, the National Széchenyi Library is in the Castle too. On the Pest side rises the neo-Gothic building of Parliament. The numerous thermal and curative springs deservedly elevate the capital to the rank of ‘city of spas’.

Other major cities include Debrecen (204,000), the trade centre of a major agricultural region; Miskolc (172,000), the location of iron-and-steel and other metallurgical industries; Szeged (158,000), a shipping centre for the agricultural products of the Great Hungarian Plain, also noted for its chemical and synthetic-textile industries; Pécs (157,000), home of the oldest university of the country and of small manufacturing industries; Györ (127,000), a traditional cultural centre of the Northern Trans-Danubian region with up-to-date motor vehicle and tool-making industry.


Hungary was the homeland of Franz Liszt, Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály, whose music was inspired by the rich national folk traditions. In the 19th century Hungary produced its first important native-born composer, Ferenc Erkel, who composed the Hungarian national anthem and the first Hungarian opera. Hungary is a highly musical country; its violinists and pianists are particularly celebrated virtuosi world-wide. Hungary has more than 5000 public libraries, and more than 100 public museums are maintained throughout the country.

In 2001 Hungary continued to strengthen the structures necessary to participate in Community structures. The decision of the Association Council on the participation of Hungary in the "Culture 2000" programme was adopted by the Government and entered into force in July 2001.

Reports on drugs situation

National Reports

Disclaimer © European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2002
The texts, reports and publications in this section have been provided by the candidate countries' national focal points. The findings, conclusions and interpretations in these documents are those of the authors alone and do not represent the policy of the EMCDDA, its partners, any EU Member State or any agency or institution of the European Union or European Communities.

documents in English     documents in national language


Related Websites
  1. European Commission: Enlargement: Candidate Country: Hungary- This page provides an introduction to Hungary's country profile, an overview of of key documents related to enlargement, press releases and interesting links.
  2. GYISM-Drogportal
  3. Kékpont Drogkunzáltációs Központ és Drogambulancia
  4. Sziget Droginformációs Alapítvány
  5. Phare-PRADO Resource Centre
  6. TASZ Társaság a Szabadságjogokért | Hungarian Civil Liberties Union
  7. NARCONON Magyarorszag Alapitvany
  8. Alapítvány Óbuda-Békásmegyer Gyermekeinek Egészségéért
  9. Links directory about drugs

documents in English     documents in national language     bilingual websites


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