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European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction
Population 2000, mid-year

22.4 million


238,391 kmē

Population density

94.1 inhabitants/kmē


55% urban population, 45% rural population

Neighbours (border in km)

Bulgaria (631), Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (546), Hungary (448), Ukraine (649), Moldova (681), and Black Sea (194)

Major cities

Bucuresti, Iasi, Constanta, Cluj-Napoca, Timisoara, Galati

Ethnic profile

Romanian (89.4%), Hungarian (7.1%) Roma (1.8%), German (0.5%), other (1%)


Romanian , Hungarian, German, and other minority languages


Orthodox (88%), Roman Catholic incl. Greek rite, (6%), Protestant (5%), Others (1%)

Life expectancy at birth

total: 70.5 years (males: 67.0 years, females: 74.2 years )


1 Leu = 100 bani (pl.: Lei)

Country information


Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a communist "peoples republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of President Nicolae CEAUSESCU became increasingly draconian through the 1980s. He was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Much economic restructuring will be carried out and Romania hopes to join the EU soon.

Economic overview

Romania, one of the poorest countries in Central and Eastern Europe, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Over the past decade economic restructuring has lagged behind most other countries in the region. Consequently, living standards have continued to fall - real wages are down over 40%. Corruption too has worsened. The EU ranks Romania last among enlargement candidates, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) rates Romania's transition progress the region's worst. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. A new government elected in November 2000 promises to promote economic reform. Bucharest hopes to receive financial and technical assistance from international financial institutions and Western governments; negotiations over a new IMF standby agreement are to begin early in 2001. If reform stalls, Romania's ability to borrow from both public and private sources could quickly dry up, leading to another financial crisis.

Reports on drugs situation

National Reports

Other documents

Disclaimer © European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2002
The texts, reports and publications in this section have been provided by the candidate countries' national focal points. The findings, conclusions and interpretations in these documents are those of the authors alone and do not represent the policy of the EMCDDA, its partners, any EU Member State or any agency or institution of the European Union or European Communities.

documents in English     documents in national language

Related Websites
  1. European Commission: Enlargement: Candidate Country: Romania - This page provides an introduction to Romania's country profile, an overview of of key documents related to enlargement, press releases and interesting links.
  2. Reteaua Nationala de Reducere a Riscului Asociat Consumului de Droguri Injectabile
  3. Droguri
  4. Clasificare droguri
  5. Informatii despre droguri | Harm - Drugs Aids and Prevention
  7. Centrul de Informare al Comisiei Europene in Romania | EU Delegation in Romania

documents in English     documents in national language     bilingual websites

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