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   About candidate countries
European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction
Population 62,965,574 - 1997 census
Population Growth Rate 1.44% (down from 2.17 in 1990)
Urban population 40,882,357 (65% of total)
Rural population 21,928,217 (35% of total)
Area (total) 779,452 of which 35% arable, 4% permanent crops, 26% forestry
Anatolia 755,688
Thrace 24,888
Total length of land borders 2627 km
Land borders with
neighbours (in km)
Armenia (268), Azerbaijan (9), Bulgaria (240), Georgia (252), Greece (206), Iran (499), Iraq (331), Syria (822)
Total length of coasts 8,333 km
Provinces over 1 Million
(1997 census)
Istanbul (9,198,809) - Ankara (3,693,390) - Izmir (3,114,859) - Bursa (1,958,529) - Konya (1,931,773) - Adana (1,682,483) - Antalya (1,509,616) - Icel (1,508,232) - Urfa (1,303,589) - Dyarbakir (1,282,678) - Manisa (1,232,015) - Hatay (1,197,139) - Kocaeli (1,177,399) - Samsun (1,153,763) - Balikesir (1,030,978) - Gaziantep (1,127,686) - K.Maras (1,008,107)
International airports Istanbul (Ataturk), Ankara (Esenboga), Adana, Bodrum (Milas), Trabzon, Gaziantep, Izmir (Adnan Menderes), Antalya (Antalya), Dalaman (Dalaman), Nevesehir, Samsun
National airports Adiyaman,  Agn, Balikesir, Batman, Denizli, Dyarbakir, Edremit, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Isparta, Kars, Kayseri, K.Maras, Konya, Malatya, Mus, S.Urfa, Sivas, Sinop, Tokat, Van
Major sea ports Istanbul, Antalya, Trabzon, Iskenderun, Samsun, Mersin, Izmir
Languages The official language is Turkish.
Life expectancy Male: 66, Female: 71 (1995)
Currency Turkish lira (TL) 1 euro=1.500.000 TL (Nov. '01 info-euro)
Country information


Turkey was created in 1923 from the Turkish remnants of the Ottoman Empire. Soon thereafter the country instituted secular laws to replace traditional religious fiats. In 1945 Turkey joined the UN and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. Turkey occupied the northern portion of Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island; relations between the two countries remain strained.


Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with traditional agriculture that still accounts for nearly 40% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The most important industry - and largest exporter - is textiles and clothing, which is almost entirely in private hands. In recent years the economic situation has been marked by erratic economic growth and serious imbalances.

Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in most years, but this strong expansion was interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994 and 1999. Meanwhile the public sector fiscal deficit has regularly exceeded 10% of GDP - due in large part to the huge burden of interest payments, which now account for more than 40% of central government spending - while inflation has remained in the high double digit range. Perhaps because of these problems, foreign direct investment in Turkey remains low - less than $1 billion annually. Prospects for the future are improving, however, because the ECEVIT government since June 1999 has been implementing an IMF-backed reform program, including a tighter budget, social security reform, banking reorganization, and accelerated privatization.

As a result, the fiscal situation is greatly improved and inflation has dropped below 40% - the lowest rate since 1987. The country experienced a financial crisis in late 2000, including sharp drops in the stock market and foreign exchange reserves, but is recovering rapidly, thanks to additional IMF support and the government's commitment to a specific timetable of economic reforms.

Reports on drugs situation

National Reports

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Disclaimer © European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2002
The texts, reports and publications in this section have been provided by the candidate countries' national focal points. The findings, conclusions and interpretations in these documents are those of the authors alone and do not represent the policy of the EMCDDA, its partners, any EU Member State or any agency or institution of the European Union or European Communities.

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Related Websites

European Commission: Enlargement: Candidate Country: Turkey - This page provides an introduction to Turkey's country profile, an overview of of key documents related to enlargement, press releases and interesting links.

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